Author: Muhammad Akhter Hamid, Ruqiya Afroz, Uqba Nawaz Ahmed, Arrutran Nanthakumar, Atchaya Arulchelvan, Asim Salim

Objective: The study aimed to assess current practices of a community hospital for collection of urine sample when diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) is suspected in children aged 0 to 36 months old.
Methods: An analysis of paediatric patients aged 0 to 36 months old was performed in two separate audits to assess the quality of urine sampling. The first, retrospective analysis comprised of urine collections techniques in a community hospital for diagnosis of UTI followed by an education intervention in which the hospital staff was briefed regarding the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) position statement for diagnosis and management of UTI. CPS recommendations were transposed using PowerPoint presentations, reminders at unit huddles, and other educational forums. Second audit was a prospective analysis which was conducted 6 months after the educations intervention.
Results: Bagged sampling had higher sensitivity and lower specificity due to sample contamination, versus transurethral bladder catheterization and suprapubic aspiration. The first audit showed that while 66% of culture-positive urine sampling was performed via the bagging, only 26% those positive cultures were repeated before treatment. In the second audit, after educational intervention, 33% of culture-positive urine collection was done via the bagging method and repeat testing was done in 83% of positive results on a bagged sample before initiating treatment. The false-positive rate for the diagnosis of UTIs in the first and second audit was 65.7 and 60%, respectively.
Conclusion: Our study recognizes the flaws in community hospital practices in the diagnosis of UTI in children and validates the significance of educational intervention in improving health care.
Keywords: Bag sampling; Children; Midstream urine; Suprapubic aspiration; Urinary tract infections; Urinary catheterization

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